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Product Data Sheet Perkadox® AMBN-gr

Product description 2,2'-Azodi(2-methylbutyronitrile), granules Molecular weight : 192.3 Theoretical available Nitrogen : 14.56% CAS No. : 13472-08-7 EINECS/ELINCS No. : 236-740-8 TSCA status : listed on inventory Initiator for the (co)polymerization of styrene, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, acrylonitrile, acrylates and methacrylates. Specifications Appearance :


White granules Assay : 98.0% min. Color (2% solution in acetone) : 20 Pt-Co max. Water : 0.5% max. Characteristics Density, 20°C : 1.11 g/cm3 Bulk density : 500-600 kg/m3 (31.2-37.4 lb/ft3 ) Melting point : 49-51°C Half-life data The reactivity of an azo initiator is usually given by its half-life (t1/2) at various temperatures. The half-life of Perkadox AMBN-gr in chlorobenzene: 0.1 hr at 104°C (219°F) 1 hr at 84°C (183°F) 10 hr at 66°C (151°F) The half-life at other temperatures can be calculated by using the following equations and constants: kd = A·e-Ea/RT Ea = 128.93 kJ/mole A = 1.38E+15 s-1 t½ = (ln2)/kd R = 8.3142 J/mole·K T = (273.15+°C) K


Due to the relatively unstable nature of azo initiators a loss of quality can be detected over a period of time. To minimize the loss of quality, AkzoNobel recommends a maximum storage temperature (Ts max.) for each azo initiator. For Perkadox AMBN-gr Ts max. = 25°C (77°F) When stored under these recommended storage conditions, Perkadox AMBN-gr will remain within the AkzoNobel specifications for a period of at least three months after delivery. Thermal stability Azo initiators are thermally unstable substances which may undergo selfaccelerating decomposition. The lowest temperature at which selfaccelerating decomposition may occur with a substance in the packaging as used for transport is the Self-Accelerating Decomposition Temperature (SADT). The SADT is determined on the basis of the Heat Accumulation Storage Test. For Perkadox AMBN-gr SADT : 45°C (113°F) Emergency temperature (Tem) : 40°C (104°F) Control temperature (Tc) : 35°C ( 95°F) The Heat Accumulation Storage Test is a recognized test method for the determination of the SADT of organic peroxides (see Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria - United Nations, New York and Geneva).


Major decomposition products Nitrogen, 2,3-Diethyl-2,3-dimethylbutanedinitrile, 2-Methylbutanenitrile, 2-Methyl-2-butenenitrile. Packaging and transport The standard packaging is a 5 x 5 kg cardboard box and a fiber drum for 50 kg initiator. Both packaging and transport meet the international regulations. For the availability of other packed quantities contact your AkzoNobel representative. Perkadox AMBN-gr is classified as self-reactive solid type D, temperature controlled, Division 4.1; UN 3236. Safety and handling Keep containers tightly closed. Store and handle Perkadox AMBN-gr in a dry well-ventilated place away from sources of heat or ignition and direct sunlight. Never weigh out in the storage room. Avoid contact with reducing agents (e.g. amines), acids, alkalis and heavy metal compounds (e.g. accelerators, driers and metal soaps). Please refer to the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for further information on the safe storage, use and handling of Perkadox AMBN-gr. This information should be thoroughly reviewed prior to acceptance of this product. The SDS is available at www.akzonobel.com/polymer.




Perkadox AMBN-gr can be used successfully for bulk, solution, suspension and emulsion polymerization of a wide variety of monomers, such as styrene, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, acrylonitrile, acrylates and methacrylates. Perkadox AMBN-gr does not form oxygenated residues and does not cause oxidative degradation of pigmented or dyed polymer systems. For this reason, the color stability of transparent, dyed polymers, such as polymethylmethacrylate, is improved. In acrylic paint manufacture, excessive grafting can be a problem when using peroxides. Because the cyano sec-butyl radical from Perkadox AMBN-gr shows less tendency to abstract hydrogen from a polymer chain than oxygen centered radicals Perkadox AMBN-gr allows the production of resins with a low degree of grafting. Figure 1 shows the conversion/time curve for the solvent polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA) initiated by Perkadox AMBN-gr. Figure 1. Solvent polymerization of MMA by Perkadox AMBN-gr Solvent : toluene MMA : 65 wt % Initiator concentration : 6 mmol/l on MMA Temperature : 70°C Perkadox AMBN-gr may be used as a replacement of Perkadox AIBN [2,2'-Azodi(isobutyronitrile)] where its greater solubility offers a significant advantage. The solubility of Perkadox AMBN-gr in a variety of organic solvents is shown in Table 1. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 90 80 100 Conversion (%)


Table 1. Solubility of Perkadox AMBN-gr in solvents, solubility (g) per 100 gram at 25°C Perkadox AMBN-gr Acetone Methanol Ethanol Isopropanol Toluene Ethylacetate Heptane Water >150 160 75 83 >150 >100 2.8 <0.1 Perkadox is a registered trademark of Akzo Nobel Chemicals B.V. or affiliates in one or more territories.


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